This "Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality" addresses the relationship Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality the ego, id, and internal objects. While ego psychology views the ego as autonomous of the drives, a less well-known alternative position views the ego as constituted by the drives.
Given that there are multiple drives, this position proposes that personality is constituted by multiple knowers. Following on from Freud, the ego is viewed as a Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality sub-set of the instinctual drives ego-driveswhereas those drives cut off from expression form the id.
This account is then extended to object-relations and the explanatory value of the ego-drive account is discussed in terms of the addressing the nature of ego-structures and the dynamic nature of internal objects.
Finally, the impact of psychological conflict and the significance of repression for understanding the nature of splits within the psyche are also discussed.
The precise relationship between
Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality id, ego, and instinctual drives remains an issue of dispute. The most prominent post-Freudian position proposes that the ego is independent of the instinctual drives e. However, an alternative, albeit less-recognized, school of thought proposes instead that it is the instinctual drives as knowers that constitute the ego. The first attempt to clearly articulate this position originates in the writings of Maze, although antecedents can be seen in the writings of Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality authors e.
Furthermore, given that there are multiple instinctual drives, each person then consists of a multiplicity of knowers. Consequently, this position has radical implications for conceptualizing the id, ego, and superego, and personality structures in general. However, assessing any theory about the ego, id and superego is not straight-forward.
Accordingly, refining our understanding of psychoanalytic theory and concepts is essential for progress in psychoanalysis. Despite this, the importance of theoretical clarification cannot be over-stated since theory provides the major explanatory foundation for understanding clinical findings and therapeutic success in psychoanalysis.
For this reason, both conceptual and theoretical research is an indispensable tool for assessing psychoanalytic claims, both with respect to theoretical clarification and generating theoretical implications for empirical assessment see Dreher, ; Leuzinger-Bohleber and Fischmann, ; Brakel,; Boag, Using theoretical and conceptual analysis, the broad aims of this paper are to contribute theoretical clarification and extension to the accounts of the id, ego, and superego and to then provide a synthesis of this account with object relations accounts that postulate multiple ego-structures and dynamic internal objects.
More specifically, the paper aims to: After discussing problems with the view that the ego is autonomous of the id, a theory of ego-drive theory is then advanced. On this viewpoint, a sub-set of the instinctual drives directly compose the ego and this sub-set can be further divided to account for the superego intra-ego conflict.
This position is then applied to a general theory of ego-differentiation and ego-structures, as well as justifying "Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality" dynamics of internal objects in object-relations approaches.
These structures consist of the ego, id and superego and according to Freud the id and ego can be understood in terms of how they differ from one another. For instance, consciousness is attached to the ego whereas the id is unconscious; the ego is that which knows and that which can be known Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality if some aspects of ego functioning such as defences are unconscious — Freud, bpp.
Furthermore, the ego is structured, organized, and possesses a synthetic character which is uncharacteristic of the id: The ego is also an agency that controls and initiates action whereas the id can only act through influencing the ego:. It is to this ego that consciousness is attached; the ego controls the approaches to motility… it is the mental agency which supervises all its own constituent processes…. However, the id is further conceptualized in two not mutually exclusive ways: The other component of the id is that of the repressed.
Freud,p. As the repressed, the id consists of all those impulses subjected to repression, which remain unaffected by time and which partake in the particular processes of the biological id Freud,p. Compton,; Wiedeman, ; Wollheim, ; Brenner, ; Boesky, ; Petocz, The id here is described as operating via the primary process pleasure principle whereas the ego is motivated by the reality principle: Freud, bp. The ego functions here via cognitive activity and perception, anticipating danger, and both preparing responses and inhibiting action Freud,p.
A problem with such functional definitions is that it is not entirely clear what it is that is said to be performing these functions and such definitions lend themselves to reification and circular explanation whereby a set of processes is treated as an entity performing those same processes and then used to explain those same processes with respect to the concocted entity — see Boag, In this respect the structural theory has been criticized for reifying various activities into entities performing those same activities Boesky, along with the further associated problem of describing the id, ego, and superego in anthropomorphic terms.
On the other hand, the id cannot be ignorant of the external world since any id-impulse or urge can only be conceptualized as an impulse or urge to do, say, X or Y where X and Y will be some real or imagined state of affairs; i. Moreover, any such urge or impulse is a propositional Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality S desires that X and so cannot be less organized or structured compared to any other mental act. If we assume that the fantasy which is unconscious retains its organization, to whatever degree, we must grant the continued activity of ego functions.
Slap and Saykin,p. Furthermore, the id is clearly an agent like the ego i. The further supposed distinction contrasting the pleasure-seeking id with the self-preservative ego simply ignores the well-recognized fact that self-preservation and reality-orientation which is only ever more or less is itself a means of gratification and frustration avoidance see Maze, ; Maze and Henry, ; Petocz, ; Newbery, ; Boag, As Maze and Henry note, the pleasure principle is the regulating guide or underlying motivational law of the mental apparatus for both the ego and the id.
Freud, "Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality"a. Accordingly, the reality principle is simply an elaboration of the pleasure principle and all mental activity is concerned with obtaining some sort of self-gratification even if appearing selfless or self-defeating.
While the problems of demarcation above have led some authors to reject the structural theory altogether e. Here at least one line of demarcation between ego and repressed id emerges in relation to the social context which is hostile toward certain means of gratification.
Socially proscribed impulses become repressed and the resulting ego assumes a dominating position within the personality Freud,pp. Nonetheless, Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality the problems of demarcation outlined above, the relationship between the ego and id requires clarification.
Furthermore, the relationship between the ego and instinctual drives also requires further consideration. The distinction
Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality the ego and the id above led Freud to contrast the ego and the id in terms of motivational sources. More specifically, the id is motivated by the drives whereas the ego manages them: Maze notes that this distinction paved the way for the development of ego psychology whereby the ego is autonomous from the drives and consists of a set of functions including controlling motility, perceptual processes, synthetic functions, and an inhibitory capacity Hartmann,; Rapaport, More recently Tauber has developed this implication to claim that the Freudian ego has free will and thus attributing to Freud a position he would find as antithetical to his favored deterministic position.
Since the ego is said to arbitrate between different desires and demands e. Accordingly, and as Freud recognized, to avoid a disembodied rational agency, a motivational account ultimately based on some biological deterministic mechanism is required to explain both the direction and activity of any behavior.
For any vital purpose, a separation of the ego from the id would be a hopeless undertaking.
Maze, Strictly speaking, however, "Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality" are policy-neutral and do not in themselves provide a basis for conflict. Laplanche and Pontalis believe that this apparent ambiguity was resolved with the introduction of the theory of narcissism. It is telling that Freud first mentions the ego in scare quotes i.
After all, it is multiple instincts contributing to the collective, and it is this notion of multiplicity that helps conceptualize both splits and merging within the ego. That is, the ego is not an irreducible entity but rather composed of a dominating set of instinctual drives of which membership is fluid.
For Freudwhat distinguishes the repressed instinctual drives from the instinctual drives composing the ego is that they remain isolated and incapable of synthesis into the collective forming the ego. A starting point for discussing drives is in the context of endogenous stimuli with respect to source somatic processaim satisfactionobject instrumental to aimand pressure motor components Freud, a.
Freud grounds drives but relates them intimately to motivational states, cognitive activity and behavior.
Drives engage in activity and for Freud the drives operate as endogenous stimuli, which, unlike external stimuli, persist until an activity or action is performed leading to satisfaction i.
While it is true that Freud chiefly speculated on the precise number and types of drives, this was not because drives are without real-world referents as some claim — e. However, these criticisms rest upon outdated drive concepts, even if indicating a need for clarifying contemporary drive theory. This clarification has been achieved to some extent by the Australian psychoanalytic theorist Maze, For instance, socialization and culture shape how drives are expressed and any behavior may reflect a variety of motivational inputs such that several drives may contribute to any given activity.
Behavior may also reflect conflict and repression, whereby compromised avenues of satisfaction are forced due to fear of punishment see Maze, ; Petocz, ; Boag,
Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality should be noted here that Maze is not engaging in speculative theorizing and instead bases his proposal on the homeostatic drive accounts of his day, a position still found in current behavioral neuroscience, even if possibly not covering the whole story for allodynamic processes may be needed to supplement homeostasis — Schulkin, ; McEwen and Wingfield, ; see also Berridge, On the other hand, whether aggression is a primary drive or a reactive response of the drives to frustration remains an open-question and is also subject to ongoing debate see Kernberg, Maze further aims to clarify the relation between drives and cognition.
Freud, ap. This could be taken to mean that the drives are defined somatically but
Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality engage in cognition in their quest for gratification and avoidance of frustration e.
More recently, Panksepp to some extent suggests a similar position whereby he appears to imply that drives engage both cognition and behavior via the SEEKING system: Panksepp and Moskal, ; see also Bazan and Detandt,pp. It is the drives that desire, believe, and phantasise, and such desires, beliefs, and phantasies are not automatically conscious and may be "Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality" from being reflected upon via repression Freud, b ; for further discussion see Boag, Chaps.
While not a common standpoint, this view has nevertheless been taken up by others to account for the dynamics of mental life e. Maze, ; Boag, ; McIlwain, Maze is thus proposing a strongly partitive view of personality: Instead, these knowers are biomechanical systems utilizing cognition:. An instinctual drive can no more restrain itself from working than any motor can, once the switches are thrown.
If its operation is to be arrested, then that must be through some influence external to itself — in the case of repression, from other instinctual drives. Accordingly, should all the primary drives be satisfied then the organism would cease to engage in motivated behavior.
Addressing this issue, Newbery proposes a conceptual distinction between drives being inoperative — ceasing activity altogether — and drives being satisfiedwhereby the drives nonetheless engage Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality cognitive activity even when satisfied Newbery,p. Here Newbery postulates that a satisfied drive may nevertheless remain sensitive to environmental sources of gratification and frustration.
A hunger-satiated person may remain alert to hunger-gratifying information when, for instance, environmental information affords the possibility of predicting food shortages.
Furthermore, both the ego and id engage in acts of
Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality. Wishes and desires that are proscribed by the social environment are associated with loss of love and danger, leading to anxiety and primary repression. Later, such external prohibitions become internalized as the superego, reinforcing the initial repression with secondary repression Freud,p.
Here Maze writes that the drive expressions i. Thus, one subset of the instinctual drives becomes organized in competition with the remainder, and treats the blocking off of the remainder as an essential part of securing its own gratification. While Freud viewed the self-preservative drives as those constituting the ego-drives and the libidinal drives as those constituting the repressed, Freud further notes that although the sexual drives are typically repressed, this is essentially an empirical finding rather than an a priori assertion for the role of sexuality in personality and repression see also Boag,pp.
Theoretically there is no objection to supposing that any sort of instinctual demand might occasion the same repressions and their consequences: What becomes repressed is determined by prevailing social factors and inter-drive competition and it is moral disapproval that provides the context for the development of id and ego:.
In particular, his view of the id as primarily driven by sexual desire, and. In Freud's view, the ego mediates between
Id ego superego psychoanalysis and sexuality id, the superego, and. However, assessing any theory about the ego, id and superego is not .
Freud further notes that although the sexual drives are typically. Sigmund Freud divided mental life into three “provinces,” id, ego, superego. The id the reservoir of basic instinctual drives, particularly sexual (libidinal) drives.