British and American Constitutional Models. Entstehung des Sports in England. Transfer des englischen Sports. The "West" as Enemy. From the "Turkish Menace" to Orientalism. Christian Allies of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman History of South-East Europe. Islam and Islamic Law. Islam-Christian Transfers of Military Technology. East West Literary Transfers. German Education and Science. Christian Frederik Horneman.
Americanisation of the Economy. Translatio Imperii im Moskauer Medizinisches warenhaus online dating. Roman Law and Reception. Staatsphilosophie,
Medizinisches warenhaus online dating, Staatspraxis BE. This article discusses the function of fashion as a form of cultural transfer in Europe-wide social processes between and Taking medieval gender history and the history of the body as its starting point, it examines the formation of a Western European identity in the 16th century, and the formation of aristocratic and then middle class dress codes in the 17th and 18th centuries, and goes on to focus on the theatricalization of court life.
Medizinisches warenhaus online dating dominance that the middle classes enjoyed from the end of the 18th century meant that middle class fashion set the standard for all classes and groups from that time. The emphasis placed on functionality and freedom of movement meant that middle class fashion contributed to the modernization of the image of the body, thus creating and reinforcing models of stratification in terms of gender, consumption and social distinction.
From the medieval period, fashion in Europe oscillated between the competing poles of the European self and the other; between the heterogeneity of the towns, regions and nations, the growth of a European identity, and the attempt on the part of Europeans to distinguish themselves from the non-European other.
Unlike any other object of material culture, clothing "Medizinisches warenhaus online dating" associated in an immediate, sensory manner with the historical actor, his body, gender and actions. The concept of clothing as body technology Craik and the concept of the "visible self" in the English-language literature demonstrate this close connection between the body, personal and social identity, and clothing.
European history is replete with examples of
Medizinisches warenhaus online dating of integration and exclusion in which fashion is used as a mark of identity. As a central object of visual and material culture, clothing communicates and transfers social standards and cultural concepts with regard to the body, gender, aesthetics, gestures and taste, as well as images of the self and the other.
Viewed from a micro-historical perspective, fashion provides an interesting field of observation because private and political processes are mixed together in fashion. The French concept of mode has had a varied history. The term from the Latin modus was used with regard to clothing as early as the 15th century and use of the term subsequently spread, particularly in the 17th century.
Clothing — referred to here in the context of court apparel — was only mentioned in third place.
Subsequently, however, the increasing discussion of courtly clothing in almanacs and calendars resulted in the Medizinisches warenhaus online dating acquiring an increasingly clothing-specific connotation. Research has yet to produce a consensus regarding the historical and spatial development, and the diffusion of the phenomenon of fashion.
As a cultural phenomenon characterized — among other things — by constant change, mass production and mass consumption, is fashion exclusively an aspect of European modernity? Must fashion therefore primarily be considered a strategy of Western modernization processes?
Or is it possible to identify processes inherent in the phenomenon of fashion in early modern and medieval periods? Rejecting the tendency to identify fashion as a strictly Western phenomenon, recent criticism of this interpretation has pointed out that non-Western societies have displayed similar
Medizinisches warenhaus online dating of change and evolution in clothing habits. The definition of fashion as a body technology and as part of processes of identity formation — as described above — enables the term to be used in a sense that is historically and spatially broader, and focuses to a greater degree on individual and social practices.
In contrast to traditional, art history-oriented costume history, the more recent Medizinisches warenhaus online dating approach no longer considers form and style in isolation. Instead, it views fashions in clothing as the result of the dress practices of various historical actors within a specific historical and spatial context clothing culture.
It no longer tacitly assumes a chronological continuity of form and style. In line with other modern historiography, it assumes instead the existence of discontinuity and sudden change. Above all, this new approach stresses that Medizinisches warenhaus online dating meanings attached to clothing are not fixed and immutable, but are constantly the object of social negotiation and are specific to a particular period in time.
Consequently, the history of clothing can follow its own independent rhythm and rules in the historical process. Modern research into clothing habits and fashions critically appraises the "Medizinisches warenhaus online dating" and varied sources available, using sources of different kinds in combination.
For the history of clothing, the pictorial sources, which were used Medizinisches warenhaus online dating traditional costume history often solely as a means of dating particular styles or garments, possess a particular complexity. They should be viewed less as a reliable or precise source of information on the form Medizinisches warenhaus online dating by clothing, but rather as a means of representing and communicating cultural standards, desires, concepts, forms of resistance and strategies, which are in a reciprocal relationship with the "actual dress culture" and can even significantly change the latter.
The late medieval period saw the completion of a revolution in European clothing history that had started in the High Middle Ages. The fashion of the courtly elite that began to emerge in this period increasingly drew attention to the body by its tailoring and created a new perspective on the gendered body, as well as novel concepts of clothing fashion and new aesthetic concepts and changed sensibilities.
Knowledge of these was transferred to other European courts by courtly poetry. The changes demonstrate how clothing, as an important component of the courtly discourse, contributes to the "readability" of the courtly world. Two decisive changes in shape can be recognized. The first, which already occurred in the High Middle Ages, was a considerable lengthening and narrowing of clothes.
The second was an extreme shortening of male clothing. The first change replaced the Frankish - Byzantine tunic shape, which had been customary up to then, with close-fitting robe-like garments for men and women.
This resulted in an increased eroticization of the body by emphasizing the female waist and the male legs under long, laterally slit skirts.
The second change, occurring in the late Middle Ages, introduced a final, clear differentiation between male and female clothing.
This "birth of fashion" was based on a number of Medizinisches warenhaus online dating innovations which were to culminate in an entirely new style of clothing in Europe. New tailoring techniques sleeve production, padded clothing and frontal openings gradually established themselves.
These resulted in a radical shortening of the male dress to a short, close-fitting doublet jacket with an inconspicuous jerkin to which the stockings were attached with ties. The houppelande was a dress for ceremonial occasions which was typical of the late Middle Ages.
Varying in length and worn by both men and women though closed at the front for womenthe high value of this garment was reflected in the valuable furs and choice textiles used.
This new unprecedented sartorial grandeur was employed by the nobility as a strategy of social differentiation. The close proximity of the feudal Medizinisches warenhaus online dating elites to the agrarian way of life explains the need to delimit court from non-court life. Clothes thus became an important strategy by which distance was manifested in a visible, sensory, and corporeal manner.
Ceremonial dress practices had an important function in this process: They served to confirm social relationships and to enact the precepts of courtly life as a performance. How did these strategies manifest themselves in actual clothing and how were they received in the contemporary European context?
Colours, for example, became an important differentiating characteristic of medieval noble society, not only because they were expensive to produce and were often oriental in origin, but because they were invested with a symbolism that became integral to the social order. Taking the history of the colour blue "Medizinisches warenhaus online dating" an example, it has been described how a re-organization of the social hierarchy of colours occurred between the 11th and 14th centuries.
Originally disdained — some even spoke of its non-existence as a colour — the symbolic status of the colour blue was raised when it became the symbolic colour of the French king, leading to a radical re-ordering of the colour hierarchy.
In terms of the cut of clothing, noble courts followed the example of Burgundian - Dutch fashion, especially in the case of female fashion. The growing significance attached to fashion in society resulted in the increased consumption of fabrics, precious stones and furs. It was this extreme demand for
Medizinisches warenhaus online dating that stimulated the initial interest in the exploration of Siberia and its subsequent colonization by the Russian Tsars.
Royal account Medizinisches warenhaus online dating give a good insight into the growth in the consumption of furs as a particularly effective form of conspicuous consumption. For instance, between andKing Edward I of England — ordered the purchase ofsquirrel furs, 3, lamb skins and 60 ermines.
Europe experienced a general increase in economic prosperity, during which improvements in artisanal technology strengthened the social position of artisans. The new prosperity and power of the cities was primarily due to them. In particular, textile-related trades, such as the cloth-workers' trade, experienced increased political influence.
This consumption was made possible by a thriving trade between European centres of wool production and important centres of trade such as GhentYpresArrasBrusselsTroyesCologneAntwerpFlorenceVenice
Medizinisches warenhaus online dating the Ottoman Empire and Parisas Medizinisches warenhaus online dating as through trade with the Orient.
Trade with materials and dyes required a special form of communication and transfer. Expensive material such as silk, damask, baldachin and atlas, and dyes such as indigo, saffron and scarlet were brought from Italy and the Orient; Northern Europe Russia and Scandinavia provided the equally valuable furs sable, ermine, Nordic squirrel, etc.
Close commercial ties with the towns of Flanders and Medizinisches warenhaus online dating with the Orient proved particularly lucrative for the Burgundian court, which under Charles the Bold — was responsible for the extreme refinement and stylization of medieval fashion in its elegance and sophistication.
This was accompanied by a court etiquette in which fashion played a central role in courtly communication. The courts and the nobility continued to dominate tastes in fashion for centuries, as the nobility alone could afford such extravagance in clothing, could acquire the required competence of taste, and Medizinisches warenhaus online dating thus keep competition from the urban middle classes at bay.
As a result, tastes in fashion had a Medizinisches warenhaus online dating reach from the beginning, as the noble courts — connected by marital alliancesheraldry, trade in mercenaries, and artists — remained in constant and close communication. The Burgundian court was especially adept at employing its extensive heraldic network and power rhetoric to establish and maintain its reputation as a trendsetter in all matters pertaining to fashion.
Despite the social dominance of the nobility, modern historians argue that in the late Middle Ages the middle and even the lower social classes were increasingly influenced by developments in fashion, or at least attempted to participate in these developments.
Roughly from the 13th century, the municipal authorities attempted to deal with this increasing social dynamic in clothing behaviour by issuing an increasing number of dress regulations. These appeared in Germany from the late medieval period, whereas in northern Italy GenoaFranceSpain and England they appeared earlier. The aim of these dress regulations was to protect the common interests of the Medizinisches warenhaus online dating, which were seen as being threatened by increasing extravagance and luxury in clothing habits.
In many regards, such regulations achieved the opposite effect, because they contributed to the spread of knowledge about clothing and made people more keenly aware of differentiation through dress.
The trend towards shorter clothes saw clerical and academic vestments becoming ever more distinct from secular dress, because the clergy and academics retained the long gown for men, which remained the most obvious Medizinisches warenhaus online dating of their profession for a long time. This longstanding differentiation between clerical and academic vestments and secular clothing mirrored the longstanding distinction between the trousers and the skirt in gender-specific and its visual representation in the motif of the "war of the trousers".
Research on the medieval period must take into account that the nobility held a monopoly in terms of the surviving sources. Original garments and cloths from the medieval period are all but non-existent. Text sources and pictorial sources, on the other hand, are far more common: The broadening of European horizons with the "discovery" "Medizinisches warenhaus online dating" America and the establishment of trade links with other continents Asia — China and India in particular as well as the intensification of trade relations with the Ottoman Empire in particular especially in the case of the Venetian republic saw the emergence of a new, powerful social group, the urban merchant class — the Fuggers of Augsburgfor example.
"Medizinisches warenhaus online dating" of this class brought a flood of previously unknown trade commodities to Europe: Similarly, knowledge of foreign, non-European styles in clothing spread. With the beginning of the early modern period, the nobility began thus to experience increasing competition from the urban merchant class in the important European trading centres of the age MilanVenice, Genoa, Paris, LyonBrussels, Antwerp, NurembergAugsburg, Cologne, Danzigand otherswhich used clothing as a means of displaying its enhanced social status, its political power and its prestige.
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